This is one of the most common elements found in the world. Its most important minerals are ilmenite FeTiO3 and rutile TiO2. The metal is obtained by reducing TiCl4 with Mg.
It has unique and advantageous physical and mechanical properties, which are not rivalled by other metals. It has a density twice that of aluminium and two thirds that of steel. At room temperature its mechanical properties are comparable with many steels and at high temperatures titanium and its alloys are superior except to the special creep resistant steels.
Titanium metal is very resistant to attacks by virtually all acids and with its high temperature properties it has become a favourite metal amongst the chemical, nuclear and aerospace industries.
There are many different grades of titanium. Controlled amounts of oxygen can affect the mechanical properties. It also depends on what other elements titanium is alloyed to or whether it is CP. The Young’s Modulus of Elasticity can range from 103 – 124 x 109 N/m2 with tensile strength tending to decrease as the temperature increases.
Titanium can be alloyed with Al, Mn, Sn, or V allowing these alloys to be strengthened by any form of thermal treatment.
Titanium has the disadvantage that it is subject to greater frictional wear damage than other materials of comparable hardness.
It can be used for aircraft structural parts where reasonable strength at temperature or corrosion resistance is essential such as fireproof engine bulkheads. Also as gas turbine engine components such as jet pipes, exhaust units. In chemical engineering these titanium alloys are used for similar applications to Commercially Pure titanium where greater strength is required. It is nowadays mainly used as a lightweight construction material.
Relative Atomic Mass
Famously, this is the metal with one of the highest strength to weight ratios of any metal. Almost twice as light as steel, it is stronger.
Other obvious qualities are its resistance to attack by acid, two of its well known uses being medical implants and tubes and vessels for chemical plant and equipment.
Titanium was until the early 1990's in relative balance with the main uses being in aerospace where such a light and strong metal had massive application – and still does.
As demilitarisation occurred and the Cold War ended, so the scrapping of Soviet weaponry resulted in massive supply of Russian Titanium coming to the West.
Perhaps, as a result of this, a host of new applications became feasible as never before. So, today you are as likely to find titanium in the front fan of a gas turbine engine as in bike frames, spectacles, laptop casings, golf clubs and other fashion-led items.
Our main business in Titanium is in sourcing ultra-pure forms of Ti metal scrap, sub-contracting the processing, and delivering to super alloy makers.
How the addition of gold led to a new harder titanium alloy